By Norbert Schwarz, Seymour Sudman
In Answering Questions the authors current a precis of the most recent learn at the thoughts and techniques used for uncovering the cognitive and communicative procedures utilized in answering survey questions. these within the fields of social and behavioral technological know-how, survey and advertising and marketing study, body of workers and software assessment, mental and academic trying out, and a number of different fields will locate this a pragmatic, resource.
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Extra info for Answering Questions: Methodology for Determining Cognitive and Communicative Processes in Survey Research
Although we have not studied them closely, it seems that most verifications are constructed both to show that the interviewer has heard the respondent and to show that the answer is the respondent's own. In listening to actual interviews, however, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether the interviewer has changed the wording of a question as part of an acceptable verification or for some other reason that may have less justification under the rules of standardization. Standardized survey questions also constrain acceptable answers (compare Fowler and Mangione, 1990; Suchman and Jordan, 1990).
This prompt forces the respondent to recall other thoughts that were not said aloud. In addition, it encourages respondents to express fully their thoughts in responding to subsequent questions. Automatic Coding of Verbal Reports from Pretest Interviews Automatic coding is a computer-assistedprocedure for counting the occurrence of prespecified verbal and nonverbal cues contained within each respondent's answer to a particular survey item? A coding category consists of a list of words, word strings, or nonverbal cues.
We also suggest the implications of our analysis for improving the design of survey questions. The Analysis and the Data The interviewer's behavior in survey interviews is constrained by the rules of standardized interviewing, which are the requirements of the interviewer's role. Several of these constraints are particularly relevant to this analysis: to read the question as worded, to obtain an answer that can be seen to be produced by the respondent and not the interviewer (compare Button, 1987), to probe nondirectively, and to maintain a cooperative relationship for the duration of the interview (see, for example, Brenner, 1985; Fowler and Mangione, 1990).
Answering Questions: Methodology for Determining Cognitive and Communicative Processes in Survey Research by Norbert Schwarz, Seymour Sudman