By Annual Reviews
Read Online or Download Annual Review of Immunology Volume 22 2004 PDF
Best immunology books
Within the really few a long time because the creation of HIV into the human inhabitants, editions of the virus have diverged to such an volume that, have been the dialogue approximately anything except viruses, acknowledged editions may perhaps simply be labeled as diverse species. This e-book will reflect on those evolutionary adaptations, in addition to different and, now and then, opposing theories trying to clarify them.
Computer-based layout and modeling, computational ways, and instrumental tools for elucidating molecular mechanisms of protein folding and ligand-acceptor interactions are integrated in Volumes 202 and 203, as are genetic and chemical tools for the construction of sensible molecules together with antibodies and antigens, enzymes, receptors, nucleic acids and polysaccharides, and medication
- Subunit Vaccine Delivery
- Autoimmune Disease Models. A Guidebook
- Quasispecies: From Theory to Experimental Systems
- Therapeutic microbiology : probiotics and related strategies
- Vaccine Analysis: Strategies, Principles, and Control
- The cardiac MRI in diagnosis, clinical management, and prognosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia
Additional resources for Annual Review of Immunology Volume 22 2004
Bovis BCG-induced DC maturation (15). The inhibition of DC maturation caused by ManLAM binding to DC-SIGN could be fully restored by antibodies against DC-SIGN (15). This illustrates that DC-SIGN, upon binding ManLAM, delivers a negative signal for M. bovis BCGinduced DC maturation, presumably induced via TLR4 (Figure 2B). Furthermore, ManLAM binding to DC-SIGN induced the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by LPS-activated DCs (15). The inhibition of DC maturation and the induction of IL-10 may contribute to the virulence of mycobacteria; immature DCs and IL-10-treated DCs are not only less efficient in the stimulation of T cell responses but also induce a state of antigen-specific tolerance (Figure 2B) (122).
Similar to DEC-205, DC-SIGN contains a tri-acidic cluster in its cytoplasmic tail, and accordingly DC-SIGN-ligand complexes are targeted to lysosomal compartments where ligands are processed for MHC class II presentation to T cells, indicating an important function for DC-SIGN as an antigen receptor (13). However, DC-SIGN also contains a di-leucine motif that appears to be essential for rapid internalization of soluble ligands by DC-SIGN (Figure 1) (13). Although most C-type lectins are endocytic receptors, it is unknown whether they can direct antigens to different intracellular compartments.
In mature DCs, DC-SIGN is targeted to early endosomal compartments, in which HIV-1 would be protected against degradation (13), suggesting that maturation of DCs by HIV-1 may lead to its altered internalization. Finding a way to override this mechanism and to target internalized DC-SIGN-HIV complexes to lysosomes would facilitate HIV-1 processing in DCs, and it would enhance specific anti-HIV-1 immune responses while reducing infection of T cells (Figure 1) (13, 93). sgm LaTeX2e(2002/01/18) P1: IKH Annu.
Annual Review of Immunology Volume 22 2004 by Annual Reviews