Annual Review of Immunology Volume 22 2004 by Annual Reviews PDF

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Bovis BCG-induced DC maturation (15). The inhibition of DC maturation caused by ManLAM binding to DC-SIGN could be fully restored by antibodies against DC-SIGN (15). This illustrates that DC-SIGN, upon binding ManLAM, delivers a negative signal for M. bovis BCGinduced DC maturation, presumably induced via TLR4 (Figure 2B). Furthermore, ManLAM binding to DC-SIGN induced the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by LPS-activated DCs (15). The inhibition of DC maturation and the induction of IL-10 may contribute to the virulence of mycobacteria; immature DCs and IL-10-treated DCs are not only less efficient in the stimulation of T cell responses but also induce a state of antigen-specific tolerance (Figure 2B) (122).

Similar to DEC-205, DC-SIGN contains a tri-acidic cluster in its cytoplasmic tail, and accordingly DC-SIGN-ligand complexes are targeted to lysosomal compartments where ligands are processed for MHC class II presentation to T cells, indicating an important function for DC-SIGN as an antigen receptor (13). However, DC-SIGN also contains a di-leucine motif that appears to be essential for rapid internalization of soluble ligands by DC-SIGN (Figure 1) (13). Although most C-type lectins are endocytic receptors, it is unknown whether they can direct antigens to different intracellular compartments.

In mature DCs, DC-SIGN is targeted to early endosomal compartments, in which HIV-1 would be protected against degradation (13), suggesting that maturation of DCs by HIV-1 may lead to its altered internalization. Finding a way to override this mechanism and to target internalized DC-SIGN-HIV complexes to lysosomes would facilitate HIV-1 processing in DCs, and it would enhance specific anti-HIV-1 immune responses while reducing infection of T cells (Figure 1) (13, 93). sgm LaTeX2e(2002/01/18) P1: IKH Annu.

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Annual Review of Immunology Volume 22 2004 by Annual Reviews

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