By Alzati A.
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Nevertheless, this simple theory is useful for getting a rough idea about how the genetic structure of population changes by natural selection. In the following we consider the basic principles of this theory. There are two kinds of models: the continuous time model and the discrete generation model. In the continuous time model the fitness of a genotype is expressed by the Malthusian parameter, while in the discrete time model it is measured by the Wrightian fitness. When generations are overlapped, the former is more realistic.
Although the above theory for the change of gene frequency has been known for almost fifty years, there are surprisingly few data from natural populations to support it. This is mainly because the gene frequency change in a population is generally so slow that it is difficult for one person to describe the whole process in his lifetime. Nevertheless, there are a large number of laboratory experiments which support the theory. g. Wallace, 1968). On the other hand, the results with 44 Natural selection and its efSects nonlethal genes are less satisfactory and suggest that the real process of natural selection is generally more complicated (Merrell, 1965).
Transition is the replacement of apurine (adenine or guanine) by another purine or of a pyrimidine (thymine or cytosine) by another pyrimidine. Other types of nucleotide substitutions are called transversion. The first molecular model for the origin of spontaneous mutations was proposed by Watson and Crick (1953). The four nucleotide bases can form a (a) Wild type TGG ATA Thr Tyr AAC GAC Leu Leu (b) Replacement TGG AGA AAC Thr Ser Leu (c) Deletion TGG AAA Thr Phe (d) Addition TGG ATG Thr Tyr (e) Inversion TGG AAA Thr Phe I GAC Leu L ACG ACCys - I L AAA CGA Phe Ala C-- I TAC Met GAC Leu Fig.
3-scroll immersi in G (1,4) by Alzati A.